DEPUTIES OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE, representatives of Jewish communities in Russia to the government during the reign of alexander i (1801–25). After parts of poland -lithuania had been annexed by Russia, the large communities sent shtadlanim to the court at St. Petersburg to represent them and defend their rights. Most of the shtadlanim were merchants or contractors who visited the city on business. When a committee was set up to frame a "Jewish constitution" in 1802–04 it was joined by several government-appointed Jewish advisers (N.N. Notkin , A. Peretz , and J.L. Nevakhovich ). The government also requested some important communities to send representatives to the committee. Together they tried to influence the committee in favor of Jewish rights. In 1807 the government appointed a "Jewish committee" to implement the inimical "Jewish constitution" of 1804 and proposed that the communities elect deputies to represent the Jews before the provincial governors. The memoranda of these deputies were referred to the "Jewish committee" in St. Petersburg and were influential in obtaining a temporary halt to the expulsion of Jews from the villages. It was also proposed to abolish the prohibition on the lease and sale of alcohol by Jews. During the invasion by Napoleon two "deputies of the Jewish people," Zundel Sonnenberg and Eliezer Dillon, accompanied Alexander's military headquarters in 1812–13, and acted as liaison between the czar and the large Jewish population in the combat area. They regularly presented memoranda and petitions concerning Jewish affairs to the court and transmitted its instructions to the Jewish communities. After the war an attempt was made to convert the committee of deputies into a permanent institution. The Jewish communities were requested to send representatives to St. Petersburg to maintain permanent contact with the ministries of religious affairs and popular education. On August 19, 1818, electors from the 12 districts (gubernia) of the pale of settlement convened and elected three deputies, Zundel Sonnenberg, Beinush Lapkovski, and Michael Eisenstadt, and three deputy representatives. In order to raise funds to cover their expenses, which probably also included furnishing bribes, the assembly resolved that every Jew was to donate the silver headpiece of his prayer shawl. The change in Alexander's policy toward the Jews at the end of his reign reduced the importance and status of the deputies. Sonnenberg was dismissed because of "impudence toward the authorities." In 1825 the Jewish deputation was officially suspended "until the need arises for a new deputation," and the institution was thereby abolished and not renewed. However, the government continued to make use of Jewish representatives. In 1840 consultative committees, chosen from among "enlightened" Jews, were created and attached to governors in Kiev and five other towns. In 1844 the function of "Learned Jew" (uchoni yevrei) was created, meaning an expertand consultant in Jewish religious affairs attached to the district governers and responsible for education and interior affairs. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: J.I. Hessen (Gessen), Yevrei v Rossii (1906), 421–32; idem, in: Yevreyskaya starina, 2 (1909), 17–29, 196–206; S. Pen, in: Voskhod, nos. 1–3 (1905). (Yehuda Slutsky / Shmuel Spector (2nd ed.)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Игры ⚽ Поможем решить контрольную работу

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Jewish exodus from Arab lands — The Jewish exodus from Arab lands refers to the 20th century expulsion or mass departure of Jews, primarily of Sephardi and Mizrahi background, from Arab and Islamic countries. The migration started in the late 19th century, but accelerated after …   Wikipedia

  • JEWISH STUDIES — Jewish studies, or often Judaic studies, refers here to the academic teaching of aspects of Jewish religion, history, philosophy, and culture, and associated languages and literatures, at the undergraduate and graduate level in institutions of… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • The Church —     The Church     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► The Church     The term church (Anglo Saxon, cirice, circe; Modern German, Kirche; Sw., Kyrka) is the name employed in the Teutonic languages to render the Greek ekklesia (ecclesia), the term by which… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Jewish political movements — refer to the organized efforts of Jews to build their own political parties or otherwise represent their interest in politics outside of the Jewish community. From the time of the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans to the foundation of Israel …   Wikipedia

  • JEWISH AGENCY — (Heb. הַסּוֹכְנוּת הַיּהוּדִית לְאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, Ha Sokhenut ha Yehudit le Ereẓ Israel), international, nongovernment body, centered in Jerusalem, which is the executive and representative of the World zionist organization , whose aims are to… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • THE EVENTS — introduction European Jewry in the Early 1930s Germany in the Early 1930s the expansion of the reich …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • JEWISH-CHRISTIAN RELATIONS — Christian Jewish contacts have progressed significantly at the initiative of the major international Church organizations and of national and regional church bodies. Of special importance are the contacts with the main Church organizations: the… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Jewish Party (Romania) — The Jewish Party ( ro. Partidul Evreiesc din România, PER ) was a political party in 1930s Romania.The PER came into being as a result of dissensions within the Jewish community. The Union of Native Jews (founded in 1909, turned into the Union of …   Wikipedia

  • Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs — The Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs (JINSA) is a Washington, D.C. based non profit neoconservative think tank focusing on issues of United States national security. JINSA s stated aim is threefold: to ensure a strong and effective… …   Wikipedia

  • The Satanic Verses controversy — refers to the controversy surrounding Salman Rushdie s novel The Satanic Verses . In particular it involves the novel s alleged blasphemy or unbelief; the 1989 fatwa issued by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini ordering Muslims to kill Rushdie; and the… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”